Peptides Definitions

AOD 9604 Originally developed as a lipolytic (fat-burning) compound, AOD9604 has shown benefit in studies of heart disease, osteoarthritis/cartilage repair, and metabolic syndrome. AOD9604 stimulates lipolysis (the breakdown or destruction of fat) and inhibits lipogenesis in animal studies.

MOTs-C The Mitochondrial-Derived Peptide MOTs-C promotes metabolic homeostasis and longevity, improves exercise capacity, and reduces obesity, insulin resistance, and other disease processes such as osteoporosis. (AOD description is above)

Tesamorelin is a growth-hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) analogue used clinically for the treatment of HIV-associated lipodystrophy (dysfunctional fat deposition). It is also being researched for its ability to improve peripheral nerve health, slow the progression of mild cognitive impairment, and the reduction fat mass.

Ipamorelin is a pentapeptide, meaning that its structure is comprised of five amino acids. It is a GH secretagogue and is considered to be an agonist, meaning that it possesses the ability to bind certain receptors of a cell and provoke a cellular response. Ipamorelin’s operational mechanics enable the peptide to stimulate the production of pituitary gland-based expression of secretions related to growth amongst animal test subjects. At the same time, the presence of the peptide has been shown to inhibit the production of a secretion known as somatostatin. Additionally, it has been determined that Ipamorelin has the ability to boost the production of IGF-1, or Insulin-like Growth Factor 1. Its presence plays a key role in the overall growth and repair of muscular and skeletal tissue.

BPC-157 is a penta-decapeptide composed of 15 amino acids. It is a partial sequence of the body protection compound (BPC) that was discovered in and isolated from human gastric juice. Animal studies have shown it to accelerate the healing of many different wounds, including muscle, tendon, and damaged ligaments. Additionally, BPC 157 has been shown to protect organs and aid in the prevention of gastric ulcers. BPC-157 acts systemically in the digestive tract to combat leaky gut, IBS, gastrointestinal cramps, and Crohn’s disease. This peptide has been known to exhibit analgesic characteristics. Research has shown its ability to help skin burns heal at a faster rate by increasing blood flow to damaged tissues. BPC-157 significantly accelerates reticulin and collagen formation as well as angiogenesis together with stimulation of macrophages and fibroblast infiltration representing a potential therapeutic tool in wound healing management.

TB-500 (Thymosin Beta-4) is a 43 amino acid peptide sequence. In animal models, Thymosin Beta-4 has been shown to improve blood vessel growth, regulate wound healing, decrease inflammation, and reduce oxidative damage in the heart and central nervous system. Thymosin-beta-4 has a role in the protection, tissue repair, regeneration, and remodeling of injured or damaged tissues. It is also of active interest in anti-aging research.

KPV is a potent anti-inflammatory peptide that has shown promise in a number of disease conditions. The most active research is in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease where the peptide has shown substantial promise. KPV has been shown in animal studies to be safe and effective when administered orally, intravenously, subcutaneously, and transdermal. Research in wound healing also reveals that KPV and other alpha-MSH derivatives may offer a host of benefits that speed wound healing, reduce infection, fight inflammation, and lead to better cosmetic results. KPV and similar peptides could become mainstays not just in wound healing, but in scar reduction following surgery.

GHK-Cu is a natural peptide in human blood plasma, urine, and saliva. Research in animals reveals that GHK-Cu can improve wound healing, immune function, and skin health by stimulating collagen, and fibroblasts and promoting blood vessel growth. There has been evidence that has shown that it acts as a feedback signal that is generated after tissue injury. It also suppresses free-radical damage and thus is a potent antioxidant.

CJC-1295 causes the natural release of GH, but it does so by naturally stimulating the growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor.

Ipamorelin is one of the most selective growth hormone (GH) secretagogues known and a potent agonist of the ghrelin/growth hormone secretagogue receptor. It has been heavily researched in a number of settings and is known to, improve bone health, boost muscle repair and development, stimulate insulin release from the pancreas, and improve bowel motility and gastric function.

CJC-1295 when combined with Ipamorelin has been shown to exhibit synergistic effects when researched together. 

Epithalon (Epitalon) is a synthetic derivative of Epithalamin and a potential modulator of telomerase, the enzyme that maintains and protects the telomere caps at the ends of chromosomes (strands of DNA). Research suggests that Epithalon induces telomere elongation and may fight off the effects of aging as a result.

Ibutamoren is an orally active, selective agonist of the ghrelin receptor. Research shows that MK-677 increases the natural secretion of growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), but does not affect cortisol levels. It is being researched as a possible treatment for growth hormone deficiency, muscle and bone wasting, appetite stimulation, and Alzheimer's disease. Research in mice, appeared to prevent the onset of AD, even in genetically predisposed mice, as long as it was started before significant amyloid beta accumulation. MK-677 research has also shown exceptionally promising benefits in improving sleep quality.

IGF-1 LR3 (insulin-like growth factor-1 long arginine 3) is a synthetic, modified construct of insulin-like growth factor-1. Because IGF-1 LR3 does not bind to IGF-1 binding proteins very well, it remains active up to 120 times longer than standard IGF-1. This results in an improved half-life for the peptide and thus increased activity. IGF-1 LR3 enhances cell division and growth boosts fat metabolism and increases muscle repair and hypertrophy by inhibiting myostatin. Recent research suggests that IGF-1 LR3 may also be useful in improving lactation among mothers with young offspring.

Kisspeptin acts to control hormone secretion as it relates to reproduction. Kisspeptin can influence testosterone levels and sex-related behaviors like drive and motivation. Research also suggests it may help to reverse some of the effects of aging.

NAD+ (Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) is the oxidized form of NADH and a naturally occurring compound. Research shows that NAD+ may be beneficial in improving muscle function, protecting cells of the nervous system, and generally reducing the effects of aging.

Selank is a short, synthetic analog of tuftsin. It has profound anti-anxiety properties. Selank also boosts memory and learning and has been shown to have beneficial effects on pain perception.

DSIP Delta-sleep-inducing peptide is a neuropeptide that affects a number of endocrine and physiological processes within the central nervous system. DSIP is of primary interest for its abilities to reduce oxidative stress, and normalize myocardial contractility. It is also being studied as a potential target in the treatment of major depressive disorder.

Semax is a synthetic derivative of adrenocorticotrophic hormone. Research suggests that it may help improve immune function, protect neurons, and improve cardiovascular function. It may also be beneficial in pain control and blood clotting.

Semaglutide is a derivative of the naturally occurring GLP-1, a peptide known to lower blood sugar levels and enhance insulin secretion. Research shows that Semaglutide may also improve heart, liver, and lung function while helping to slow or prevent the effects of Alzheimer’s disease. Semaglutide has been shown to significantly decrease appetite by delaying gastric emptying and reducing intestinal motility. Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) Analog Shown to Stimulate Insulin and Suppress Glucagon Secretion in a Glucose-Dependent Manner.

Tirzepatide was developed to fight type 2 diabetes but has additionally been shown to protect the cardiovascular system and act as a potent weight loss agent. Tirzepatide is a synthetic derivative of gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) that has simultaneous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) functionality as well. This combination allows Tirzepatide to lower blood glucose levels, increase insulin sensitivity, boost feelings of satiety, and accelerate weight loss. 

Tesofensine is a serotonin-noradrenaline-dopamine reuptake inhibitor that was originally studied for its effect on Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Unfortunately, its exploration of these indications was limited because the research subjects started losing too much weight. Since then, tesofensine has been studied as a way to treat obesity via its ability to reduce appetite. This molecular compound indirectly stimulates the cholinergic system and is shown to be more successful than other weight loss agents. Tesofensine (TE) increases the transmission of 3 monoaminergic neurotransmitters in the brain. These neurotransmitters are serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine which help regulate energy balance and are linked to obesity and depression. On average, its 6-month weight loss results from a phase 2b clinical trial resulted in a weight loss of around 25 pounds. TE research has shown a pronounced effect on appetite sensations and a slight effect on energy expenditure. Both effects can contribute to the strong weight-reducing effect.